Peer Feedback

Blackboard

Each student should write your Peer Feedback under the Week 6 Thread of the two papers you are assigned to read. Peer feedback should be at least 200 words and include critical feedback to support the progression of your classmate’s work. Attached are several examples of constructive feedback provided in last Fall’s research course.

Feedback #1 Crandall:

Literature Review on the Prevalence of HIV in New York City

The following paper examines the existing literature on the prevalency of HIV in New York City (NYC). Several agencies in conjunction with city and state government have pledged to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic in NYC by 2020 due to the city having one of the highest prevalency rates within the United States. In order to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in NYC it is important to explore what factors contribute to the prevalency rate of HIV+ in NYC. The goal of this literature review is to compare the existing literature on HIV prevalency in NYC to identify factors contributing to the epidemic and if the current Ending the Epidemic strategy is effective.

Method

Literature Review

I conducted a review of quantitative studies that examined prevalency rates of HIV in New York City. Peer-reviewed academic journals, books/book chapters and dissertations published before October 4, 2019 were reviewed. This literature search included studies from the following databases: Medline, Science Citation Index Expanded, ProQuest Central, OneFile, Health Reference Center Academic, Publicly Available Content Database, PubMed Central, Directory of Open Access Journals, Sage Publications, Social Science Premium Collection, and Oxford Journals. The following terms were included in the initial search: New York, NYC, HIV, prevalence, prevalent, prevalency, quantitative, comparative, compare, epidemic and epidemiology. The literature search examined the study titles, abstracts, findings, and references. Reference lists of excluded articles were examined for leads on additional relevant studies.

Inclusion Criteria

The following inclusion criteria was established: (1) Based on NYC; (2) specifically examines HIV prevalence rates; (3) used quantitative methods; (4) was written in the last 10 years; and (5) written in English.

Results

Literature Search

The database search identified 322,940 peer-reviewed articles. I chose to examine the first 10 pages of the database search as it was organized by relevance. Based on the initial screening of the titles 48 of these articles did not meet inclusion criteria. Post initial screening of 16 abstracts were reviewed and 10 articles were fully reviewed based on inclusion criteria. An additional 2 articles were reviewed based on reference lists of articles and abstracts that were reviewed.

Critical Findings

Overall the studies included used existing HIV incidence surveillance data to identify trends and factors linked to prevalence when the study was not focused on specific sub-populations. Deren et al. (2011) found a prevalence of HIV has increased over the years in intravenous drug users in New York City however Escudero et al. (2017) found a decrease of HIV incidence in this population after the increase of needle and syringe programs and accessibility to HIV treatment. Deren (2011) also identifies NYC’s growing aging population of individuals living with HIV as a factor in HIV prevalence.

Various articles explore the variable of substance use in a multitude of ways to explore the impact on the prevalence of HIV. Identifying this correlation can support social workers advocating for clients and safe injection clinics, integrative teams while in substance treatment facilities, and harm reduction perspectives in community-based programs. In addition to exploring substance use, studies explored the role of sex, race and poverty levels in prevalency. However, in these cases, the researchers did not use traditional HIV surveillance data. Studies that did not use existing surveillance from local and national sources had small datasets/sample sizes which makes generalizability difficult. The findings suggest that there is a need to explore how to get more individuals screened for HIV and encourage providers to consider HIV screenings as routine procedures.

Conclusion

There are still gaps in the knowledge of prevalence rate of HIV in NYC. Prior research has identified some subpopulations that have a higher prevalence of HIV within NYC and how these prevalence rates compare to those across the United States. Based on this preliminary literature review, the growing population of elderly people living with HIV has contributed to the overall high prevalence of HIV in NYC. However, the question of how longer life expectancies for individuals with HIV impacts prevalence rates, remain unanswered. It must also be acknowledged that the End the Epidemic initiative is still ongoing, and any related data will take time to be analyzed and published. Considering, the goal of ending the epidemic by 2020 will need to be reassessed based on emergin

Feedback #2 Cordero:

Hebrew Home at Riverdale, Riverspring values the wellbeing of older adults, which includes providing the best quality of care, in hopes to maximize and improve healthy aging. Riverspring is dedicated to helping older adults in rehabilitation, housing, home care, care management, and justice for elders. To provide quality care and improve the livelihood of older adults Riverdale main concern is safety. Assessing for safety are the first steps to ensure we are providing care for this vulnerable population. Hebrew home has implemented policies and procedures to provide different safety measures for older adults in their care. The fire and emergency preparedness manual for Hebrew home is a tool that is created for both residents and staff to learn how to address emergencies. The fire and emergency preparedness manual for Hebrew home for the aged at Riverdale does not prepare staff and residents in case of an emergency. Providing a manual that is not able to use universal/user friendly language, and be assessible for all cannot prepare residents and/or staff for emergencies. This can be systematically problematic, because the safety of others is at risk. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and review research on how can residents and/or staff member become able to apply the manual instructions under distress.

In this literature review to research my research question, I researched articles that included different perspectives of how memory can be impacted in a stressful situation. I specifically reviewed these articles because although each study is not focused on manual instructions specifically, it shows the different ways how certain environments affect staff members differently. If the work environment itself can be stressful, remembering certain protocols under these circumstances can even more difficult to manage. This should be considered to avoid complicated instructions during an emergency than more simple instructions could be provided to create a more efficient work place. Each article used experimental methods, questionnaires, or surveys to prove their argument.

Ingham & Redshaw (2017) conveys a qualitative study that addresses fire planning, emergency warning system, evacuation and how it affects residents. This paper will describe the aim of the research by analyzing peer reviews methods, results and conclusions. This study of community response to emergency preparedness addressed how 31 vulnerable residents felt limited to preparation of procedures to ensure their safety. It analyzes the importance of community and its resilience. Hebrew home believes in community and helping both residents and staff learn how to be resilient in vulnerable circumstance. This specific research addressed those vulnerable emergencies and concluded, contribution of this research is to examine the experiences of vulnerable individuals and make recommendations that the authorities can implement to improve practices in relation to working with vulnerable members in the community. Similar to Ingham & Redshaw (2017), Health and Medicine; Studies from Stanford University School of Medicine Provide New Data on Patient Care and Safety (Emergency manual implementation: Can brief simulation-based or staff trainings increase familiarity and planned clinical use (2015), discussed how valuable it is to have individuals prepare for any critical event. The study analyzed staff and how they retain information surrounding emergency manuals and review different training methods that can enhance client care and overall safety. Health and Medicine; Studies from Stanford University School of Medicine Provide New Data on Patient Care and Safety (Emergency manual implementation: Can brief simulation-based or staff trainings increase familiarity and planned clinical use (2015), reported that there are studies which states regardless of professional expertise, individuals are not able to “retrieve key knowledge under stress.” The implementation of emergency manual (EM) was to create an effective learning tool to help professionals remember emergency policy for safety and/or critical events.

This method provided nine 50-minute training for staff on the emergency manual implementation. The results of the study implicated that institutions/ agencies should not only provide the emergency manual but incorporate training to assist clinician’s comprehensiveness. Findings showed that for professional to learn how to be more prepare for emergencies, they will need constant trainings, and dialogues surrounding emergencies manuals. Preparing for crisis takes practice; therefore, Hebrew Home policy doesn’t provide enough practice for residents and staff to feel ready for crisis. Emergency manual is not provided to everyone, and when asked about the most recent copy it was outdated and not user-friendly. The language in the manual is not universal, which can be difficult for clients to understand and cause confusion. There isn’t any staff training on how to help clients prepare for emergencies using the manual, which can cause high levels of stress on staff, which can result on not being able to properly prepare for emergencies. Researchers findings stated the more people feel part of a community, a sense of belonging and familiarity they will be able to remember key points on emergency preparedness.

Stout, & Rokke (2010) conveys research about components of working memory, which explains how decision-making and problem solving relates to our cognitive system. This research explains the importance of the working memory, which plays a role for individuals to remember and comprehend emergency manual. Findings stated that low working memory predicts to higher levels of emotional distress, which leads to depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Low working memory was found that it affects problem solving, and tasks. In order to improve our working memory, it suggested improving our working memory can help with day-to day decision making and problem solving. To help strength our working memory practice will be needed, which training of emergencies will help people improve their decision making and problem solving in critical events. On the other hand, Schmidt, Dichter, Palm, & Hasselhorn, (2012) conducted a study that focuses strictly on staff in nursing home to explore the degree of distressed experience in that specific environment and how it impacted the staff health and work ability. This study was completed by a self-report questionnaire collected from 731 registered nurses. The level of residents challenging behavior related to the distress was assessed by using a scale of nine questions. The results showed that challenging behavior that caused distressed in the work place impacted the nurses work ability. These results are important because again, if it found a staff member under distress impacts their work ability than imagine when there is an emergency and protocol must be remembered during these conditions.

Mcpherson, Hiskey, & Alderson, (2016) in their study also focused on registered nurses but those who specifically worked in the inpatient dementia ward participated in qualitative interviews. The qualitative interviews showed how the work pressure and how each individual handled that specific environment affected how they navigated through pressure. The nurses in the study acknowledged the importance of taking their time to process and reflect on difficult emotions and experiences during work which would improve their work ability during events of distress. Mcpherson et al. (2016) argued organizational changes should be made to reward nurses for their compassion during extreme situations to encourage professional conduct. The writers explained that there should staff trainings on self-compassion and mindfulness to instill in staff how to better handle residents and how to manage in stressful situations by being aware even during distress.

In conclusion, these studies would be able to analyze how to effectively improve Hebrew home’s emergency preparedness. As an agency, it’s great that they provide these manuals, which is the first step but they will need to increase staff and residents training to prepared for critical events. Providing user-friendly manuals can help individuals strengthen their working memories and improve the outcome of emergencies. It is important to be mindful on how emotional distress can affect memory and how information may be received during this time.

Padlet

SELECT ONE OF THE COMPLEMENTARY READINGS.

Refer to the evaluation criteria for qualitative research on pp. 144 and 145 and identify specific quality criteria that you noticed in the reviewed paper. Include the citation for the paper you reviewed. After posting, you also can click on edit and make a connection (arrow) between your post and the selected study.

Comment on the posts of TWO classmates who posted on a different article than what you did.

 
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