Human resources

Location of Video notes in the text

Chapter 10 Class Scope, Public and Private Members, p. 565 Default Initialization of Member Variables, p. 587 Separate Interface and Implementation, p. 592 Solution to Practice Program 10.1, p. 611

Chapter 11 const Confusion, p. 639 Arrays of Classes using Dynamic Arrays, p. 671 Overloading = and == for a Class, p. 680 Solution to Programming Project 11.12, p. 701

Chapter 12 Avoiding Multiple Definitions, p. 715 Solution to Practice Program 12.3, p. 736

Chapter 13 Walkthrough of Linked Lists of Classes, p. 762 Solution to Programming Project 13.6, p. 783 Solution to Programming Project 13.9, p. 785

Chapter 14 Recursion and the Stack, p. 801 Solution to Practice Program 14.4, p. 827 Solution to Practice Program 14.4 , p. 828

Chapter 15 Inheritance Example, p. 858 Solution to Practice Program 15.3, p. 882 Solution to Programming Project 15.1, p. 884 Solution to Programming Project 15.10, p. 889

Chapter 16 The STL Exception Class, p. 917 Solution to Practice Program 16.1, p. 920 Solution to Programming Project 16.3, p. 922

Chapter 17 Issues Compiling Programs with Templates, p. 931 Solution to Programming Project 17.7, p. 955

Chapter 18 C++11 and Containers, p. 990 Solution to Practice Program 18.2, p. 1007 Solution to Programming Project 18.6, p. 1010

(Continued from Inside Front Cover)

Problem Solving with C++ ninth edition

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Problem Solving with C++

Walter Savitch University of California, san Diego


Kenrick mock University of alaska, anChorage

ninth edition

Editorial Director: Marcia Horton Acquisitions Editor: Matt Goldstein Program Manager: Kayla Smith-Tarbox Editorial Assistant: Kelsey Loanes Marketing Coordinator: Kathryn Ferranti Production Director: Erin Gregg Managing Editor: Scott Disanno Senior Operations Supervisor: Vincent Scelta Operations Specialist: Linda Sager Cover Designer: Joyce Wells Permissions Manager: Timothy Nicholls Image Permissions Manager: Karen Sanatar Media Producer: Renata Butera Media Project Manager: Wanda Rockwell Full-Service Vendor: Hardik Popli, Cenveo® Publisher Services Composition: Cenveo Publisher Services Printer/Binder: Courier/Westford Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text.

Microsoft® and Windows® are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other coun- tries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not spon- sored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2007, 2005, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, Massachusetts 02116.

Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Savitch, Walter J., 1943- Problem solving with C++ / Walter Savitch ; contributor, Kenrick Mock. — Ninth edition. pages cm Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-359174-3 (alkaline paper) ISBN-10: 0-13-359174-3 (alkaline paper) 1. C++ (Computer program language) 2. Problem solving. I. Mock, Kenrick. II. Title. QA76.73.C153S29 2014 005.13’3–dc23 2013048487

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1—CW—15 14 13 12 11 ISBN 10: 0-13-359174-3 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-359174-3



This book is meant to be used in a first course in programming and computer science using the C++ language. It assumes no previous programming experi- ence and no mathematics beyond high school algebra.

If you have used the previous edition of this book, you should read the following section that explains the changes to this ninth edition and then you can skip the rest of this preface. If you are new to this book, the rest of this preface will give you an overview of the book.

Changes to the Ninth Edition This ninth edition presents the same programming philosophy as the eighth edition. All of the material from the eighth edition remains, but with the fol- lowing enhancements:

■ End-of-chapter programs are now split into Practice Programs and Program- ming Projects. Practice Programs require a direct application of concepts presented in the chapter and solutions are usually short. Practice Programs are appropriate for laboratory exercises. Programming Projects require ad- ditional problem solving and solutions are generally longer than Practice Programs. Programming Projects are appropriate for homework problems.

■ Introduction to C++11 in the context of C++98. Examples of C++11 content includes new integer types, the auto type, raw string literals, strong enumera- tions, nullptr, ranged for loop, conversion between strings and integers, member initializers, and constructor delegation.

■ Additional material on sorting, secure programming (e.g., overflow, array out of bounds), and inheritance.

■ Correction of errata. ■ Twenty-one new Practice Programs and ten new Programming Projects. ■ Ten new VideoNotes for a total of sixty-four VideoNotes. These VideoNotes

walk students through the process of both problem solving and coding to help reinforce key programming concepts. An icon appears in the margin of the book when a VideoNote is available regarding the topic covered in the text.

If you are an instructor already using the eighth edition, you can continue to teach your course almost without change.

Flexibility in Topic Ordering This book was written to allow instructors wide latitude in reordering the material. To illustrate this flexibility, we suggest two alternative ways to order

vi Preface

the topics. There is no loss of continuity when the book is read in either of these ways. To ensure this continuity when you rearrange material, you may need to move sections rather than entire chapters. However, only large sec- tions in convenient locations are moved. To help customize a particular order for any class’s needs, the end of this preface contains a dependency chart, and each chapter has a “Prerequisites” section that explains what material needs to be covered before each section in that chapter.

Reordering 1: Earlier Classes

To effectively design classes, a student needs some basic tools such as control structures and function definitions. This basic material is covered in Chapters 1 through 6. After completing Chapter 6, students can begin to write their own classes. One possible reordering of chapters that allows for such early coverage of classes is the following:

Basics: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. This material covers all control struc- tures, function definitions, and basic file I/O. Chapter 3, which covers ad- ditional control structures, could be deferred if you wish to cover classes as early as possible.

Classes and namespaces: Chapter 10, Sections 11.1 and 11.2 of Chapter 11, and Chapter 12. This material covers defining classes, friends, overloaded operators, and namespaces.

Arrays, strings and vectors: Chapters 7 and 8

Pointers and dynamic arrays: Chapter 9

Arrays in classes: Sections 11.3 and 11.4 of Chapter 11

Inheritance: Chapter 15

Recursion: Chapter 14 (Alternately, recursion may be moved to later in the course.)

Pointers and linked lists: Chapter 13

Any subset of the following chapters may also be used:

Exception handling: Chapter 16

Templates: Chapter 17

Standard Template Library: Chapter 18

Reordering 2: Classes Slightly Later but Still Early

This version covers all control structures and the basic material on arrays be- fore doing classes, but classes are covered later than the previous ordering and slightly earlier than the default ordering.

Basics: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. This material covers all control struc- tures, function definitions, and the basic file I/O.

Preface vii

Arrays and strings: Chapter 7, Sections 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8

Classes and namespaces: Chapter 10, Sections 11.1 and 11.2 of Chapter 11, and Chapter 12. This material covers defining classes, friends, overloaded operators, and namespaces.

Pointers and dynamic arrays: Chapter 9

Arrays in classes: Sections 11.3 and 11.4 of Chapter 11

Inheritance: Chapter 15

Recursion: Chapter 14. (Alternately, recursion may be moved to later in the course.)

Vectors: Chapter 8.3

Pointers and linked lists: Chapter 13

Any subset of the following chapters may also be used:

Exception handling: Chapter 16

Templates: Chapter 17

Standard Template Library: Chapter 18

Accessibility to Students

It is not enough for a book to present the right topics in the right order. It is not even enough for it to be clear and correct when read by an instructor or other experienced programmer. The material needs to be presented in a way that is accessible to beginning students. In this introductory textbook, I have endeav- ored to write in a way that students find clear and friendly. Reports from the many students who have used the earlier editions of this book confirm that this style makes the material clear and often even enjoyable to students.

ANSI/ISO C++ Standard

This edition is fully compatible with compilers that meet the latest ANSI/ISO C++ standard. At the time of this writing the latest standard is C++11.

Advanced Topics

Many “advanced topics” are becoming part of a standard CS1 course. Even if they are not part of a course, it is good to have them available in the text as enrichment material. This book offers a number of advanced topics that can be integrated into a course or left as enrichment topics. It gives thorough cov- erage of C++ templates, inheritance (including virtual functions), exception handling, and the STL (Standard Template Library). Although this book uses libraries and teaches students the importance of libraries, it does not require any nonstandard libraries. This book uses only libraries that are provided with essentially all C++ implementations.

viii Preface

Dependency Chart

The dependency chart on the next page shows possible orderings of chapters and subsections. A line joining two boxes means that the upper box must be covered before the lower box. Any ordering that is consistent with this partial ordering can be read without loss of continuity. If a box contains a section number or numbers, then the box refers only to those sections and not to the entire chapter.

Summary Boxes

Each major point is summarized in a boxed section. These boxed sections are spread throughout each chapter.

Self-Test Exercises

Each chapter contains numerous Self-Test Exercises at strategic points. Com- plete answers for all the Self-Test Exercises are given at the end of each chapter.


VideoNotes are designed for teaching students key programming concepts and techniques. These short step-by-step videos demonstrate how to solve problems from design through coding. VideoNotes allow for self-paced instruction with easy navigation including the ability to select, play, rewind, fast-forward, and stop within each VideoNote exercise.

Online Practice and Assessment with MyProgrammingLab

MyProgrammingLab helps students fully grasp the logic, semantics, and syn- tax of programming. Through practice exercises and immediate, personalized feedback, MyProgrammingLab improves the programming competence of be- ginning students who often struggle with the basic concepts and paradigms of popular high-level programming languages.

A self-study and homework tool, a MyProgrammingLab course consists of hundreds of small practice problems organized around the structure of this textbook. For students, the system automatically detects errors in the logic and syntax of their code submissions and offers targeted hints that enable students to figure out what went wrong—and why. For instructors, a comprehensive gradebook tracks correct and incorrect answers and stores the code inputted by students for review.

MyProgrammingLab is offered to users of this book in partnership with Turing’s Craft, the makers of the CodeLab interactive programming exer- cise system. For a full demonstration, to see feedback from instructors and students, or to get started using MyProgrammingLab in your course, visit


Preface ix

DISPLAY P.1 Dependency Chart

*Chapter 16 contains occasional references to derived classes, but those references can be omitted

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 C++ Basics

Chapter 3 More Flow of Control

Chapter 6 I/O Streams

Chapter 7 Arrays 7.1–7.3

Chapter 14 Recursion

Chapter 10 Classes 1

Chapter 11 Classes 2 11.1–11.2

Chapter 7 7.4 Multi-

Dimensional Arrays

Chapter 15 Inheritance

*Chapter 16 Exception Handling

Chapter 12 Separate

Compilation & Namespaces

Chapter 11 11.3 Classes &


Chapter 11 11.4 Classes &

Dynamic Arrays

Chapter 17 Templates

Chapter 18 STL

Chapter 9 Pointers and

Dynamic Arrays

Chapter 8 Strings and


Chapter 13 Pointers and Linked Lists

Chapter 4 Functions 1

Chapter 5 Functions 2

x Preface

Support Material

There is support material available to all users of this book and additional material available only to qualified instructors.

Materials Available to All Users of this Book

■ Source Code from the book ■ PowerPoint slides ■ VideoNotes

To access these materials, go to:

Resources Available to Qualified Instructors Only

Visit Pearson Education’s instructor resource center at www.pearsonhighered .com/irc to access the following instructor resources:

■ Instructor’s Resource Guide—including chapter-by-chapter teaching hints, quiz questions with solutions, and solutions to many programming projects

■ Test Bank and Test Generator ■ PowerPoint Lectures—including programs and art from the text ■ Lab Manual

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Resource Kits

Instructors who adopt this text can order it for students with a kit containing five popular C++ IDEs (Microsoft® Visual Studio 2013 Express Edition, Dev C++, NetBeans, Eclipse, and CodeLite) and access to a Web site containing written and video tutorials for getting started in each IDE. For ordering infor- mation, please contact your campus Pearson Education representative.

Contact Us

Your comments, suggestions, questions, and corrections are always welcome. Please e-mail them to


Numerous individuals and groups have provided me with suggestions, discus- sions, and other help in preparing this textbook. Much of the first edition of this book was written while I was visiting the Computer Science Department at the University of Colorado in Boulder. The remainder of the writing on the first edition and the work on subsequent editions was done in the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). I am grateful to these institutions for providing a conducive environ- ment for teaching this material and writing this book.

Preface xi

I extend a special thanks to all the individuals who have contributed critiques or programming projects for this or earlier editions and drafts of this book. In alphabetical order, they are: Alex Feldman, Amber Settle, Andrew Burt, Andrew Haas, Anne Marchant, Barney MacCabe, Bob Holloway, Bob Matthews, Brian R. King, Bruce Johnston, Carol Roberts, Charles Dowling, Claire Bono, Cynthia Martincic, David Feinstein, David Teague, Dennis Heckman, Donald Needham, Doug Cosman, Dung Nguyen, Edward Carr, Eitan M. Gurari, Ethan Munson, Firooz Khosraviyani, Frank Moore, Gilliean Lee, Huzefa Kagdi, James Stepleton, Jeff Roach, Jeffrey Watson, Jennifer Perkins, Jerry Weltman, Joe Faletti, Joel Cohen, John J. Westman, John Marsaglia, John Russo, Joseph Allen, Joseph D. Oldham, Jerrold Grossman, Jesse Morehouse, Karla Chaveau, Ken Rockwood, Larry Johnson, Len Garrett, Linda F. Wilson, Mal Gunasekera, Marianne Lepp, Matt Johnson, Michael Keenan, Michael Main, Michal Sramka, Naomi Shapiro, Nat Martin, Noah Aydin, Nisar Hundewale, Paul J. Kaiser, Paul Kube, Paulo Franca, Richard Borie, Scot Drysdale, Scott Strong, Sheila Foster, Steve Mahaney, Susanne Sherba, Thomas Judson, Walter A. Manrique, Wei Lian Chen, and Wojciech Komornicki.

I extend a special thanks to the many instructors who used early editions of this book. Their comments provided some of the most helpful reviewing that the book received.

Finally, I thank Kenrick Mock who implemented the changes in this edition. He had the almost impossible task of pleasing me, my editor, and his own sensibilities, and he did a superb job of it.

Walter Savitch

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