Psychology assignment: Bipolar Disorder

Details: 
 
Good morning I need an assignment for a psychology class for July 20. I have attached a file with the assignment requirements highlight on yellow and some content copy from the book that you can have an idea it is about of psychological disorders that are in yellow. the writing should be in a simple language. 
 
3 pages very simple no complicated language, no copy and paste from google.

For centuries, people have believed myths and misconceptions about psychological disorders and the people who suffer from them. Modern psychological research has allowed us to correct some of these misconceptions. As a result, many people have changed their ideas about mental and emotional disorders. Think of a common misconception you have observed in society or in your personal experience. How could information from research be used to change people’s views of psychological disorders? How can this information help us to better understand people who experience mental and emotional disorders?

In a multi-paragraph essay, describe the misconception you observed and discuss how information from research could be used to change this misconception about psychological disorders and the people who suffer from them. Be sure to include details from class materials, readings, and research on psychological disorders to support your discussion.

 

 

 

Reading What Is Bipolar Disorder?

          Reading What Is Major Depressive Disorder?

          Reading What Is an Anxiety Disorder?

          Reading Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

          Reading What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

          Reading What Are Dissociative Disorders?

          Reading What Are Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders?

          Reading What Are Personality Disorders?

 

 

 

 

4-3

What Do the Psychological Perspectives Tell Us About Disorders?

.

Philippe Pinel (1745–1826) is often called “the father of modern psychiatry.” After observing the more humane treatment of inmates by a former patient turned employee named Jean-Baptiste Pussin at Bicêtre Hospital outside Paris, Pinel followed Pussin’s example by removing the patients’ iron shackles. Instead of the usual “treatments” of the day—bleeding, purging, and blistering—Pinel made a practice of conversing with the patients regularly.

 

 

We have seen many examples in this textbook of behaviors that are best understood when viewed from multiple perspectives. The study of psychological disorders provides yet another example of how an integration of multiple perspectives can be useful. This is particularly the case when considering the possible causes for abnormal behaviors.

 

What might an integrated approach to psychological disorder look like? First, we propose that the various perspectives discussed in this textbook (biological, clinical, developmental, cognitive, individual, and social) all have a great deal to say about disorders, but each has more to say about some disorders than about others. By considering the contributions of factors from multiple perspectives, we should have a greater appreciation of the complex interactions that occur among perspectives.

 

In addition, an integrated perspective helps us understand the reciprocal relationships among factors leading to psychological disorder. Just as a person who is diagnosed with depression might show low levels of serotonin activity in the brain, being in a leadership position boosts a person’s serotonin levels. A simple biological explanation suggesting that chemical imbalances lead to depression or a simple psychological explanation stating that people who feel powerless are more likely to be depressed misses the nuances of these reciprocal relationships. The richer understanding of the causal factors leading to a psychological disorder pays off in the development of more effective treatments. Single-perspective thinking usually leads to single-perspective treatments. If you believe that depression is purely the result of chemical imbalances of the brain, then a simple prescription should do the trick. If you believe that hearing voices others can’t hear is the result of childhood communication patterns, you will miss the opportunity to provide medication that can effectively end these troubling symptoms. Inclusive models describing the entire range of causal factors are more likely to result in effective treatments tailored to the needs of individuals.

 

14-4 Which Disorders Emerge in Childhood?

Many disorders might have roots in childhood but are more typically diagnosed in adolescence and adulthood. The DSM-5 uses the term neurodevelopmental disorders to refer to disorders that instead are diagnosed typically in childhood yet often continue throughout the life span (APA, 2013). Two of these neurodevelopmental disorders are examined in this section: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Add Bookmark to this Page

Main content

Chapter Contents

Chapter Contents

14-4a Autism Spectrum Disorder

The word autism literally means “within oneself.” In 1943, psychiatrist Leo Kanner worked with a group of children who shared problems in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Kanner’s observations form the basis of our current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorderautism spectrum disorderA disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior. autism spectrum disorder A disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior. (ASD; APA, 2013), which combines previous categories of autism and Asperger’s syndrome. ASD represents a spectrum because the severity of the observed deficits can vary widely from individual to individual. Adjustment can range from relatively normal, allowing independent living, to intellectual disability, requiring living with parents or in institutional settings.

Rates of ASD have been increasing rapidly over the last two decades (see ● Figure 14.4). Approximately 1 child out of every 50 between the ages of 6 and 17 years in the United States has ASD (Blumberg et al., 2013). Rates of ASD in California had already jumped 273% between 1987 and 1998 (Shute, 2000). The rapid increase in rates could be a result of a genuine rise in cases, a relaxation or improved awareness of diagnostic criteria, or some combination of the two (Barbaresi, Katusic, Colligan, Weaver, & Jacobsen, 2005). Males remain far more likely to be diagnosed with ASD than females, possibly by a factor of 4 to 1 (Blumberg et al., 2013; Shute, 2000).

Figure 14.4The Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Appears to Be Increasing.

​Rates of autism spectrum disorder continue to increase, but the reasons for this change remain a source of debate in the scientific community. It is possible that the rates are truly increasing, but greater awareness by parents and health care providers, relaxed applications of the diagnostic criteria, and improved availability of services might also be contributing to the observed change.

 

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014). Data & statistics. Retrieved from www.cdc.com/ncbddd/autism/data.html. © Cengage Learning®

Problems with social relatedness are at the core of this disorder, regardless of the individual’s level of intelligence and adjustment. Beginning in infancy, most children with ASD do not make eye contact or take pleasure in reciprocal games like peekaboo. Insight into the thoughts and points of view of others is particularly lacking. As we discussed in Chapter 11, children develop a theory of mind by the time they are 3 to 4 years of age. Many researchers believe that a failure to develop a normal theory of mind is responsible for many of the social deficits observed in ASD (Baron-Cohen, 1991; Senju, Southgate, White, & Frith, 2009). Language skills of individuals with ASD can vary widely, from having no language abilities to delayed acquisition of language to normal skills (Ellis Weismer, Lord, & Esler, 2010). Even when language skills are relatively normal, individuals with ASD usually experience difficulty maintaining conversations with others because of their deficits in social skills.

Individuals with ASD often object strenuously to changes in the environment and show a high level of repetitive, routine behavior. Rituals may include repetitive movements, such as rocking, hand flapping, head banging, and twirling. Other individuals may engage in extremely limited preoccupations, such as learning all models of cars ever made by Ford. One possible source of this ritualistic behavior is a general dysfunction in sensory networks. Most individuals with ASD show unusually increased or decreased sensitivity to stimuli (Lane, Young, Baker, & Angley, 2010). They may be relatively insensitive to pain or cold but distressed by normal sound levels (see ● Figure 14.5). Ritualistic behavior may control or override these disparate sensations.

Figure 14.5Sensory Sensitivity Is Different in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

​Children with ASD often show differences from healthy children in their sensitivity to environmental stimuli. This graph shows the percentage of children with ASD whose scores on an instrument measuring sensitivity were the same as those of typical children, mildly different from those of typical children (between one and two standard deviations from the mean), and rare compared to those of typical children (more than two standard deviations from the mean). The domains measured included sensitivity to touch (tactile), sensitivity to taste and smell, sensitivity to movement (e.g., fear of falling), underresponsiveness (e.g., touches people), auditory filtering (e.g., fails to respond to name when called), low energy (e.g., tires easily), and visual or auditory (e.g., responds negatively to loud noises or bright lights).

Add Bookmark to this Page

Main content

Chapter Contents

Chapter Contents

14-4a Autism Spectrum Disorder

The word autism literally means “within oneself.” In 1943, psychiatrist Leo Kanner worked with a group of children who shared problems in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Kanner’s observations form the basis of our current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorderautism spectrum disorderA disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior. autism spectrum disorder A disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior. (ASD; APA, 2013), which combines previous categories of autism and Asperger’s syndrome. ASD represents a spectrum because the severity of the observed deficits can vary widely from individual to individual. Adjustment can range from relatively normal, allowing independent living, to intellectual disability, requiring living with parents or in institutional settings.

Rates of ASD have been increasing rapidly over the last two decades (see ● Figure 14.4). Approximately 1 child out of every 50 between the ages of 6 and 17 years in the United States has ASD (Blumberg et al., 2013). Rates of ASD in California had already jumped 273% between 1987 and 1998 (Shute, 2000). The rapid increase in rates could be a result of a genuine rise in cases, a relaxation or improved awareness of diagnostic criteria, or some combination of the two (Barbaresi, Katusic, Colligan, Weaver, & Jacobsen, 2005). Males remain far more likely to be diagnosed with ASD than females, possibly by a factor of 4 to 1 (Blumberg et al., 2013; Shute, 2000).

Figure 14.4The Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Appears to Be Increasing.

​Rates of autism spectrum disorder continue to increase, but the reasons for this change remain a source of debate in the scientific community. It is possible that the rates are truly increasing, but greater awareness by parents and health care providers, relaxed applications of the diagnostic criteria, and improved availability of services might also be contributing to the observed change.

 

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2014). Data & statistics. Retrieved from www.cdc.com/ncbddd/autism/data.html. © Cengage Learning®

Problems with social relatedness are at the core of this disorder, regardless of the individual’s level of intelligence and adjustment. Beginning in infancy, most children with ASD do not make eye contact or take pleasure in reciprocal games like peekaboo. Insight into the thoughts and points of view of others is particularly lacking. As we discussed in Chapter 11, children develop a theory of mind by the time they are 3 to 4 years of age. Many researchers believe that a failure to develop a normal theory of mind is responsible for many of the social deficits observed in ASD (Baron-Cohen, 1991; Senju, Southgate, White, & Frith, 2009). Language skills of individuals with ASD can vary widely, from having no language abilities to delayed acquisition of language to normal skills (Ellis Weismer, Lord, & Esler, 2010). Even when language skills are relatively normal, individuals with ASD usually experience difficulty maintaining conversations with others because of their deficits in social skills.

Individuals with ASD often object strenuously to changes in the environment and show a high level of repetitive, routine behavior. Rituals may include repetitive movements, such as rocking, hand flapping, head banging, and twirling. Other individuals may engage in extremely limited preoccupations, such as learning all models of cars ever made by Ford. One possible source of this ritualistic behavior is a general dysfunction in sensory networks. Most individuals with ASD show unusually increased or decreased sensitivity to stimuli (Lane, Young, Baker, & Angley, 2010). They may be relatively insensitive to pain or cold but distressed by normal sound levels (see ● Figure 14.5). Ritualistic behavior may control or override these disparate sensations.

Figure 14.5Sensory Sensitivity Is Different in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

​Children with ASD often show differences from healthy children in their sensitivity to environmental stimuli. This graph shows the percentage of children with ASD whose scores on an instrument measuring sensitivity were the same as those of typical children, mildly different from those of typical children (between one and two standard deviations from the mean), and rare compared to those of typical children (more than two standard deviations from the mean). The domains measured included sensitivity to touch (tactile), sensitivity to taste and smell, sensitivity to movement (e.g., fear of falling), underresponsiveness (e.g., touches people), auditory filtering (e.g., fails to respond to name when called), low energy (e.g., tires easily), and visual or auditory (e.g., responds negatively to loud noises or bright lights).

 

Source: Adapted from “Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association With Adaptive Behavior,” by A. Lane, R. Young, A. Baker, and M. Angley, 2010, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, pp. (1112–122). doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0840-2. © Cengage Learning®

Chapter Contents

14-4b Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Although the causes of ASD remain somewhat mysterious, and probably show variable patterns from case to case, scientists are making progress in their understanding. Family and twin studies provide strong evidence that ASD is influenced by genetics (Frazier et al., 2014). The concordance rate for ASD between identical twins may be 76% to 88% and possibly more (Ronald & Hoekstra, 2011), which means that if one twin has ASD, the other twin has between a 76% and an 88% chance of also having ASD. Very large numbers of genes are probably involved, and research attention is being focused on the expression of these genes during brain development (Sakai et al., 2011). Autopsies of the brains of people with ASD and people with no history of psychological disorder show dramatic differences (Voineagu et al., 2011). In the typical control brains, 174 genes were expressed differently in the frontal lobes compared to the temporal lobes, but in the brains of people with ASD, no gene showed evidence of being expressed differently in the two areas.

Abnormalities in cortical development might lead to unusual minicolumns, vertical arrays of neurons perpendicular to the surface of the cerebral cortex that represent the smallest processing units of the brain. Individuals with ASD have narrower minicolumns containing normal numbers of cells but spaced farther apart than those found in healthy individuals. These structural differences are consistent with a pattern of connectivity that favors detailed focus, which could produce the unusual interests and hobbies of people with ASD, over more global processing, like understanding the social environment (Opris & Casanova, 2014).

Additional structural abnormalities in cases of ASD have been observed in the amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum (Barnea-Goraly et al., 2014; Stoodley, 2014). Researchers continue to debate a possible role in ASD for the mirror system, which has been implicated in empathy, imitation, and language (see Chapter 8; Gallese, Rochat, & Berchio, 2013; Hamilton, 2013).

Narrow minicolumns similar to those found in the brains of people with ASD were observed in the brains of three distinguished scientists, none of whom had ASD symptoms, who donated their brains for scientific study. These similarities suggest that the minicolumn structure might account for the extreme focus of interests typical in ASD (Casanova, Switala, Trippe, & Fitzgerald, 2007). Outstanding scientists, like people with autism, have been known to study minute details for long periods.

Environmental factors undoubtedly play a part in ASD, and they probably interact with genetic factors during sensitive periods of brain development (Engel & Daniels, 2011). Parental age appears to be one risk factor, with older parents more likely than younger parents to give birth to a child with ASD (Grether, Anderson, Croen, Smith, & Windham, 2009; Shelton, Tancredi, & Hertz-Picciotto, 2010), although the effect is rather small. Exposure to infection and nutritional factors are known risk factors for ASD (Hamlyn, Duhig, McGrath, & Scott, 2013). Use of common antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy triples the risk of producing a son with ASD but does not seem to influence risk in daughters 
(Harrington, Lee, Crum, Zimmerman, & Hertz-Picciotto, 2014).

One of the unfortunate consequences of the uncertainty surrounding the causes of ASD has been the vulnerability of concerned parents seeking answers. In a paper later retracted by the British medical journal Lancet, unsubstantiated claims that the routine measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination caused ASD were published. Similar controversies in the United States about a type of mercury preservative in vaccinations ensued.

Minicolumns in the cerebral cortex function like the microprocessors in modern computers by serving as the basic unit that receives input, processes it, and responds. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder 
(ASD; lower image) have smaller minicolumns than do healthy controls (top image). What does this difference mean for information processing? Smaller minicolumns favor the process of discrimination, described in Chapter 8 as distinguishing among stimuli, while larger minicolumns favor generalization, or applying a response to similar stimuli. Behavioral domains that are difficult for people with ASD, such as language, face recognition, and following another person’s gaze, require more generalization than discrimination.

 

Manuel F. Casanova, M.D., Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville

The weight of the scientific evidence shows that vaccinations play no part in the development of ASD (Schechter & Grether, 2008; see ● Figure 14.6). Despite the clear data and reassurances from medical experts, worried parents have withheld vaccinations from their children, leading to increasing numbers of cases of life-threatening, preventable diseases that had previously been believed to be under control. For example, in the first half of 2008, measles cases in the United States doubled compared to the rates observed between 2000 and 2007, and all cases involved unvaccinated school children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2008).

Figure 14.6Scientific Evidence Does Not Support a Role for Vaccinations in the Development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

​Cumulative exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that has been used in vaccines, was the same for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and healthy controls. Despite clear scientific evidence to the contrary, many people have been influenced by celebrities such as model Jenny McCarthy and have withheld vaccinations from their children. As a result, communities are facing epidemics of clearly avoidable and disabling diseases, such as measles.

Chapter Contents

14-4d Causes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

All children can be active and noisy, but most usually learn quickly to restrict those behaviors to the right times and places. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often struggle to sit quietly in class or wait in line.

 

Suzanne Tucker/Shutterstock.com

The National Institute of Mental Health (2009, p. 3) concluded that “scientists are not sure what causes ADHD.” However, twin and adoption studies support a significant role for genetics in the development of ADHD. Heritability may be 70% or more (Faraone & Mick, 2010). Environmental factors might interact with genetic risk. Known environmental risks for ADHD are lead contamination, low birth weight, and prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs (Banerjee, Middleton, & Faraone, 2007).

The frontal lobes may be underactive in cases of ADHD (Barkley, 1997). Because the frontal lobes inhibit unwanted behavior, lower activity in this part of the brain may lead to hyperactivity and impulsivity. The frontal lobes, and the prefrontal areas in particular, appear to mature more slowly in children with ADHD than in healthy controls (Shaw et al., 2007). Peak cortical thickness, a measure of brain maturity, occurred in healthy controls around the age of 7.5 years but not until the age of 10.5 years in children with ADHD. Patterns of cortical thinning during adolescence predicted which individuals would continue to experience ADHD symptoms in adulthood and which would “outgrow” their symptoms (Shaw et al., 2013). The caudate nucleus, part of the basal ganglia that we described in Chapter 4, also shows delayed development in ADHD (Krain & Castellanos, 2006). White matter circuits connecting the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes appear to mature differently in people with and without ADHD (Helpern et al., 2011).

The parts of the brain implicated in ADHD, such as the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, feature large amounts of dopamine activity. As we will see in Chapter 15, most of the medications used to treat ADHD, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine or Dextrostat), or amphetamine salts (Adderall), act by boosting the activity of dopamine, suggesting that dopamine activity might be lower than usual in cases of ADHD (Volkow et al., 2009).

Among the many differences observed in the brains of children with attention deficit disorder (ADHD) compared to those of healthy controls is the rate of brain maturity, as measured by cortical thickening. These images demonstrate areas of the brain that developed later in children with ADHD than in healthy controls. Peak cortical thickness occurred around the age of 7.5 years in healthy children but was not seen in children with ADHD until an average age of 10.5 years. This finding implies that children with ADHD can be expected to lag behind their age peers in some tasks but will eventually experience improvement.

 

Source: From Shaw, P., et al., (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 104(49), 19649-19654. Copyright 2007 National Academy of Sciences. U.S.A.

As in ASD, myths about the causes of ADHD are common. Sugar is often blamed for hyperactive behavior, but evidence from carefully controlled studies does not support this belief (Milich & Pelham, 1986; Wolraich, Wilson, & White, 1996). However, as we discussed in Chapter 2, a well-controlled study suggested that combinations of common food additives made normal children demonstrate more hyperactivity (McCann et al., 2007). It is unlikely that “poor parenting” is responsible for these symptoms (Schroeder & Kelley, 2009). Parents can, however, learn new behavioral management techniques that greatly improve their child’s behavior.

Summary 14.1

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Disorder Symptoms Possible causal factors under investigation
Autism spectrum disorder
  • Problems with social relatedness
  • Problems with communication
  • Ritualistic behavior
  • Genetics
  • Parental age
  • Disruptions in brain development
  • Unknown environmental influences
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Inattentiveness
  • Hyperactivity
  • Genetics
  • Brain development/exposure to toxins
  • Frontal lobe activity
  • Food additives

Credits: Top Row. J.R. Bale / Alamy . Bottom Row: Suzanne Tucker / Shutterstock.com .

Chapter Contents

14-4b Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Although the causes of ASD remain somewhat mysterious, and probably show variable patterns from case to case, scientists are making progress in their understanding. Family and twin studies provide strong evidence that ASD is influenced by genetics (Frazier et al., 2014). The concordance rate for ASD between identical twins may be 76% to 88% and possibly more (Ronald & Hoekstra, 2011), which means that if one twin has ASD, the other twin has between a 76% and an 88% chance of also having ASD. Very large numbers of genes are probably involved, and research attention is being focused on the expression of these genes during brain development (Sakai et al., 2011). Autopsies of the brains of people with ASD and people with no history of psychological disorder show dramatic differences (Voineagu et al., 2011). In the typical control brains, 174 genes were expressed differently in the frontal lobes compared to the temporal lobes, but in the brains of people with ASD, no gene showed evidence of being expressed differently in the two areas.

Abnormalities in cortical development might lead to unusual minicolumns, vertical arrays of neurons perpendicular to the surface of the cerebral cortex that represent the smallest processing units of the brain. Individuals with ASD have narrower minicolumns containing normal numbers of cells but spaced farther apart than those found in healthy individuals. These structural differences are consistent with a pattern of connectivity that favors detailed focus, which could produce the unusual interests and hobbies of people with ASD, over more global processing, like understanding the social environment (Opris & Casanova, 2014).

Additional structural abnormalities in cases of ASD have been observed in the amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum (Barnea-Goraly et al., 2014; Stoodley, 2014). Researchers continue to debate a possible role in ASD for the mirror system, which has been implicated in empathy, imitation, and language (see Chapter 8; Gallese, Rochat, & Berchio, 2013; Hamilton, 2013).

Narrow minicolumns similar to those found in the brains of people with ASD were observed in the brains of three distinguished scientists, none of whom had ASD symptoms, who donated their brains for scientific study. These similarities suggest that the minicolumn structure might account for the extreme focus of interests typical in ASD (Casanova, Switala, Trippe, & Fitzgerald, 2007). Outstanding scientists, like people with autism, have been known to study minute details for long periods.

Environmental factors undoubtedly play a part in ASD, and they probably interact with genetic factors during sensitive periods of brain development (Engel & Daniels, 2011). Parental age appears to be one risk factor, with older parents more likely than younger parents to give birth to a child with ASD (Grether, Anderson, Croen, Smith, & Windham, 2009; Shelton, Tancredi, & Hertz-Picciotto, 2010), although the effect is rather small. Exposure to infection and nutritional factors are known risk factors for ASD (Hamlyn, Duhig, McGrath, & Scott, 2013). Use of common antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy triples the risk of producing a son with ASD but does not seem to influence risk in daughters 
(Harrington, Lee, Crum, Zimmerman, & Hertz-Picciotto, 2014).

One of the unfortunate consequences of the uncertainty surrounding the causes of ASD has been the vulnerability of concerned parents seeking answers. In a paper later retracted by the British medical journal Lancet, unsubstantiated claims that the routine measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination caused ASD were published. Similar controversies in the United States about a type of mercury preservative in vaccinations ensued.

Minicolumns in the cerebral cortex function like the microprocessors in modern computers by serving as the basic unit that receives input, processes it, and responds. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder 
(ASD; lower image) have smaller minicolumns than do healthy controls (top image). What does this difference mean for information processing? Smaller minicolumns favor the process of discrimination, described in Chapter 8 as distinguishing among stimuli, while larger minicolumns favor generalization, or applying a response to similar stimuli. Behavioral domains that are difficult for people with ASD, such as language, face recognition, and following another person’s gaze, require more generalization than discrimination.

 

Manuel F. Casanova, M.D., Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville

The weight of the scientific evidence shows that vaccinations play no part in the development of ASD (Schechter & Grether, 2008; see ● Figure 14.6). Despite the clear data and reassurances from medical experts, worried parents have withheld vaccinations from their children, leading to increasing numbers of cases of life-threatening, preventable diseases that had previously been believed to be under control. For example, in the first half of 2008, measles cases in the United States doubled compared to the rates observed between 2000 and 2007, and all cases involved unvaccinated school children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2008).

Figure 14.6Scientific Evidence Does Not Support a Role for Vaccinations in the Development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

​Cumulative exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that has been used in vaccines, was the same for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and healthy controls. Despite clear scientific evidence to the contrary, many people have been influenced by celebrities such as model Jenny McCarthy and have withheld vaccinations from their children. As a result, communities are facing epidemics of clearly avoidable and disabling diseases, such as measles.

 

© Cengage Learning®

Chapter Contents

14-4c Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)A disorder characterized by either unusual inattentiveness, hyperactivity with impulsivity, or both. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A disorder characterized by either unusual inattentiveness, hyperactivity with impulsivity, or both. is perhaps one of the most contentious categories described in the DSM-5. The criteria for the disorder are difficult to distinguish from the behaviors of many typical young children. Because most children diagnosed with ADHD are treated with medication, the stakes for accurately diagnosing the condition are high indeed.

ADHD involves inattention and hyperactivity. Some individuals show both inattention and hyperactivity, but some inattentive people show no hyperactivity (APA, 2013). The core feature of inattention is the inability to maintain sustained attention, or on-task behavior, for an age-appropriate length of time. This problem is evidenced in the diagnostic criteria for inattention, such as difficulties in following instructions, in organizing and completing work, and in avoiding careless mistakes. Children with hyperactivity express a high level of motor activity and find engaging in structured activities, such as waiting in line or sitting quietly in class, challenging. These children are noisy, active, and boisterous, and they often appear to take action without thinking it through. Even as adults, individuals who were diagnosed with ADHD as children have more traffic accidents than do people without the disorder (Barkley & Cox, 2007).

Many of these behaviors are seen in children who do not have psychological disorders. Although the DSM-5 attempts to provide guidelines about making a distinction between normal and abnormal inattentiveness and hyperactivity, fewer than 40% of surveyed pediatricians reported using the DSM-5 criteria to evaluate cases of ADHD (Wasserman et al., 1999). More than half the children in a large sample who were receiving medication for ADHD did not meet even relaxed diagnostic criteria for the disorder, let alone the carefully constructed criteria spelled out in the DSM-5 (Angold, Erkanli, Egger, & Costello, 2000).

One of the DSM-5 criteria for ADHD is “often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.” If you have visited an elementary school classroom lately, you might have noticed that most children are active. At what point does squirming become a psychological disorder requiring medication?

In 2011, 11% of children between the ages of 4 and 17 years had been diagnosed with ADHD in the United States, representing an increase of 42% over rates of ADHD as recently as 2003 (Visser et al., 2014; see ● Figure 14.7). ADHD is diagnosed at least twice as frequently in males as in females, and females are more likely than males to be diagnosed with inattentiveness without hyperactivity (APA, 2013).

Figure 14.7Diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the United States.

​The number of children diagnosed with ADHD in a 2007 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention varies dramatically by region in the United States, from a low of 5.6% to 7.9% 
in the Southwest to 11% to 15.9% in 
parts of the Midwest and Southeast. Reasons for these regional discrepancies are not clear, although low socioeconomic status is considered a risk factor for ADHD. 
The differences might also represent variations in how the diagnostic criteria are applied by local health care providers.

 

© Cengage Learning®

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

What is That?

Keep an eye out for: Footnotes,  Glossary terms,  and Enlargeable images and tables .

Too Small?

Adjust the text size, or set your bookmark for the page where you left off.

Take Note

Select text while reading to see options for adding notes and highlights.

What’s Next?

Flip to the next and previous pages.

Jump Around

Jump to any page in the chapter and track your location.

Print It

Print just this section or the whole reading in a printer friendly format.

  • Highlight Text

 

  • Change Color

 

  • Search Questia
  • Add Note
  • Dictionary
  • Read Text
  • Remove Highlight
  • Add Flashcard
  • Zoom Math

Schizophrenia

is not the most common type of disorder, affecting approximately 1% of the human population worldwide (Kessler et al., 2007), but it is one of the most dramatic. This condition influences and distorts a range of behaviors, including perception, cognition, movement, and emotion

Chapter Contents

14-5a Symptoms of Schizophrenia

The DSM-5 places schizophrenia within a group of disorders called schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (APA, 2013). Among the symptoms of schizophrenia are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorders of movement, which together indicate a state of psychosis. Schizophrenia also features negative symptoms (APA, 2013). Negative symptoms are behaviors that are seen in healthy people but not in patients. These symptoms include “diminished emotional expression and avolition” (APA, 2013, p. 88). A person with diminished emotional expression does not show typical outward signs of emotion, such as facial expressions and tone of voice, when an emotional response is expected. Avolition (the a means “lack of”) refers to a patient’s lack of goal-oriented behavior.

DelusionsDelusionsA false, illogical belief. Delusions A false, illogical belief. are defined as unrealistic beliefs. These may take a number of forms, including delusions of persecution by others (paranoia) or feelings of unrealistic power or importance (grandiosity).

HallucinationsHallucinationsA false perception. Hallucinations A false perception. are false perceptions. Although hallucinations may occur in several sensory modalities, most hallucinations in schizophrenia are auditory (Tien, 1991). Patients often report hearing voices, which can be accusatory or otherwise unpleasant, contributing to the distress associated with the disorder. Auditory hallucinations are not imaginary; they are real sensations correlated with increased activity in the primary auditory cortex of the temporal lobe (Dierks et al., 1999). Simply asking patients to remember or imagine sounds did not produce the type of activity in the auditory cortex seen during an auditory hallucination, indicating that the hallucination experience is different from simple memory or imagination.

A further symptom of schizophrenia involves disorganized patterns of speech. The patient jumps inexplicably from one topic to the next. People with schizophrenia appear to have difficulty inhibiting secondary meanings for some words (Titone, Levy, & Holzman, 2000). For example, the word jam can refer to either a fruit spread for toast or an impromptu musical session. Most people would use context (a conversation about food or music) to decide which meaning was appropriate. Patients with schizophrenia might not experience this filtering, leading their thoughts to jump from food to jazz and on to other atypical connections.

This loosening of associations among ideas might occur because of the reduced latent inhibition in patients with schizophrenia, which we discussed in Chapter 8. According to this argument, latent inhibition typically results in fewer associations being made to familiar stimuli. If you have had a lot of experience connecting jam and food, you are unlikely to consider other uses of the word jam. The person with schizophrenia, however, would be less inhibited in making connections among ideas, leading to trains of thought that seem bizarre to the rest of us.

Some people with schizophrenia experience catatonia, which means that they maintain awkward or unusual body positions for hours at a time.

 

Grunnitus Studio/Science Source

Schizophrenia also features “grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behavior” (APA, 2013, p. 88). Some people may be unusually active, while others may barely move throughout an entire day. Unusual behaviors can occur, including grimaces and gestures. The maintenance of awkward or unusual body positions for hours at a time is called catatonia. People experiencing catatonia appear aware of their surroundings, but they don’t move. Most of us would find it difficult to sit for a few minutes, let alone hours, without shifting position.

 

Chapter Contents

 
"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!"

Hi there! Click one of our representatives below and we will get back to you as soon as possible.

Chat with us on WhatsApp