Economic evaluation is crucial since there are limited resources available as compared to the unlimited wants. As such there is need for evaluation to determine the best possible way to utilise the available resources for maximum economic gain. Also, the fixed health care budget has limited resources at disposal like time, money and human resources required to meet the patient’s wants. Hence, a marginal utilization of the resources is necessary.
Upstream public health interventions have multi-sector origins including employment, health, environment, education among others. This makes it hard to attribute the gains and costs to any sector. Also, the have multi-sector impacts where the decision in one sector affect other sectors related to it. As such any externalities are difficult to value. Further, the characteristics of the interventions make it hard to value the costs and the benefits. The interventions are complex changing over time and their impact is influence by the local systems in place.
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